Indian Education Policy- 2020.
The first National Policy on Education was brought by prime minister Indira Gandhi in 1968, followed by Rajiv Gandhi in 1986 and Narendra Modi in 2020.
The new education policy brought an overall change in the whole education system of India, starting from school to research. It lays particular emphasis on the creative and overall development of the students. Hence, the primary principle is not only to mold the cognitive capabilities but also the foundational capabilities and higher-order cognitive capabilities. It also aims to provide each and every student, irrespective of their place of residence an opportunity to fulfill their right to education. The principle being the ability to develop as good human beings capable of rational thought and action, possessing resilience, empathy, courage, scientific temper, and creative imagination with sound and ethical values.
The fundamental principles are:
- Recognizing, identifying and fostering the unique capabilities of each student.
- Achieving foundational literacy and numeracy.
- Flexibility in the selection of courses.
- No hard separation between science and arts, between curricular and extra- curricular.
- Multidisciplinary and holistic education.
- Emphasis on conceptual understanding.
- Creativity and critical thinking.
- Ethics and human values are given importance.
- Promoting multilingualism and power of language.
- Extensive use of technology.
- Respect for diversity and local context.
- Full equity and inclusion
- Teachers and faculty as the heart of education.
- Continuous review of progress and outstanding research opportunities.
The changes were been brought from school education itself, trying to bring out 2 crore school children back to the mainstream through an open schooling system. The current 10+2 has been replaced by a new structure, 5+3+3+4. It also suggests making the board exams easier, making all the students give twice a chance. Another important change was the introduction of vocational education from class 6 including internships. And also the opportunity to learn in their regional language until grade 5. Sanskrit and foreign languages will be given special emphasis, moreover, there will be no language imposition on the students. Instead of giving exams every year, students will have to answer only answer three exams- 3, 5, and 8. And the midday meal will be provided with the inclusion of the breakfasts. More focus will be given to students’ health, particularly mental health. For the same reason, more counselors and social workers will be provided.
While considering more higher education, the major change was the elimination of MPhil courses, making the graduation, post-graduation, and Ph.D. interdisciplinary. The National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for the research culture in higher education. The National Assessment center PAREKH has been created to assess the students. In addition, there is an opportunity for foreign students to set up campuses in India. After completing 1 year of study, that would be a certificate course, after 2 years that would be a diploma and after completing 3 years, a full bachelor’s degree would be given.
The National Testing Agency would be given the additional responsibility of conducting entrance exams for admissions to universities across the country in addition to the other main entrance exams. More importantly, the fees of both private and public universities would be fixed.
It aims to increase the state expenditure on education from around 4% to 6% of the GDP as soon as possible.
Another major change was brought regarding teacher education. To become a 4 year Bachelor of Education would be a minimum. The recruitment process would also be more strengthened and transparent. The National Council of Teacher Education will frame a National Curriculum framework, which aims to: “Ensure that all students at all levels of school education are taught by passionate, motivated, highly qualified, professionally trained and well-equipped teachers.”